Asexuality orientation

26 Dec

Definitions

[edit]Romantic relationships and identity

Further information: Affectional orientation

Asexuals, while lacking in sexual desire for any gender, may engage in purely emotional romantic relationships.[14][15] Terms concerning this are:

  • aromantic: lack of romantic attraction towards anyone
  • biromantic (also ambiromantic): romantic attraction that is both heteroromantic and homoromantic (but not necessarily at the same time) – the romantic aspect of bisexuality
  • heteroromantic: romantic attraction towards person(s) of a different gender – the romantic aspect of heterosexuality
  • homoromantic: romantic attraction towards person(s) of the same gender – the romantic aspect of homosexuality
  • panromantic: romantic attraction towards person(s) of every gender – the romantic aspect of pansexuality
  • polyromantic: romantic attraction towards multiple, but not all, genders. The romantic aspect of polysexuality.
  • andromanticgyneromantic, and ambiromantic: romantic attraction towards person(s) expressing masculinity or femininity or intersex/third gender-mixing (respectively) without implying the gender of the individual experiencing the attraction; often used by asexuals with a non-binary gender identity. The romantic aspect of androphilia, gynephilia, and ambiphilia.

The Asexual Visibility and Education Network (AVEN) defines an asexual as “someone who does not experience sexual attraction” and stated, “[a]nother small minority will think of themselves as asexual for a brief period of time while exploring and questioning their own sexuality” and that “[t]here is no litmus test to determine if someone is asexual. Asexuality is like any other identity – at its core, it’s just a word that people use to help figure themselves out. If at any point someone finds the word asexual useful to describe themselves, we encourage them to use it for as long as it makes sense to do so”.[13]

Researchers have varied in their attempts to define asexuality, but the term is usually defined to mean the lack or absence of sexual attraction or sexual interest. This may be defined as having little sexual attraction or desire, no sexual attraction or desire, or a combination thereof with or without the characteristic of behavior,[4][6][16] as researchers have used the term “to refer to individuals with low or absent sexual desire or attractions, low or absent sexual behaviors, exclusively romantic non-sexual partnerships, or a combination of both absent sexual desires and behaviors”.[6]

As an emerging identity with a broad definition, there is an enormous amount of variation among people who identify as asexual; for example, asexual-identified individuals who report that they feel sexual attraction but not the inclination to act on it because they have no true desire or need to engage in sexual or even non-sexual activity (cuddling, hand-holding, etc.).[6][16] Some asexuals participate in sexual activity out of curiosity.[6] Some may masturbateas a solitary form of release, while others do not feel a need to do so.[5] The need or desire for masturbation is commonly referred to as a “sex drive” and is disassociated from sexual attraction and being sexual; asexuals who masturbate generally consider it to be a normal product of the human body and not a sign of latent sexuality, and may not even find it pleasurable.[6] Some asexual men are completely unable to get an erection and sexual activity is completely impossible for them.[17] Asexuals also differ in their feelings towards performing sex acts: some are indifferent and may even have sex for the benefit of a romantic partner; others are more strongly averse to the idea, even though they do not necessarily dislike other people for having sex.[6][13]

[edit]Sexual orientation and etiology

There is significant debate over whether asexuality is a sexual orientation or not.[12] It is most comparable to hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), in the sense that both imply a general lack of sexual attraction to anyone, but asexuality is generally not considered a disorder (such as anorgasmia,anhedonia, etc.) or a sexual dysfunction because asexuality does not necessarily define someone as having a medical problem or problems relating to others socially.[16] It also does not necessarily imply that lacking sexual attraction causes anxiety; it is considered the lack or absence of sexual attraction as a life-enduring characteristic.[4] Some scholars, however, opine that asexuality is not a meaningful category to add to the continuum of sexual orientations, and say that it is instead the lack of a sexual orientation or sexuality.[12] Others state that it is the denial of one’s natural sexuality, and that it is a disorder caused by shame of sexuality or anxiety, sometimes basing this belief on asexuals who masturbate or occasionally engage in sexual activity simply to please a romantic partner.[12][17]

Various other scholars assert that asexuality is a sexual orientation, as some asexuals are unable to masturbate even though they reportedly have a “normal” sex drive, and that there are variations of sexual preferences, arguing that asexuality ought to be included as well.[12][17] They stress that asexuals do not choose to have no sexual desire, and generally start to find out their differences in sexual behaviors around adolescence. Because of these facts coming to light, it is argued that asexuality is much more than a behavioral choice, and is not something that can be “cured” like a disorder.[17]

Etiology in this context is without implication of disease, disorder, or abnormality.[18][19][20][21] Research on the etiology of sexual orientation when applied to asexuality has the definitional problem of sexual orientation not consistently being defined by researchers as including asexuality.[22] Asexuality may be considered a sexual orientation, which is defined as “enduring” and resistant to change, proving to be generally impervious to interventions intended to change it.[11] However, while heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality are usually but not always determined during the early years of preadolescent life, it is not known when asexuality is determined. “It is unclear whether these characteristics [viz., “lacking interest in or desire for sex”] are thought to be lifelong, or if they may be acquired.”[6]

Non-measurement in some areas of sexual orientation is accepted by the American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the National Association of Social Workers: “[S]imply to document that a phenomenon occurs, case studies and non-probability samples are often adequate. . . . Some groups are sufficiently few in number – relative to the entire population – that locating them with probability sampling is extremely expensive or practically impossible. In the latter cases, the use of non-probability samples is often appropriate.”[23] In determining etiologies, when asexuals are a small percentage of a large society, asexuals with a given etiology will compose an even smaller percentage, so that etiological information is available only from some individuals, generally not randomly selected.[24][25]

[edit]Research

[edit]Prevalence

In the mid-twentieth century, Alfred Kinsey rated individuals from 0 to 6 according to their sexual orientation from heterosexual to homosexual, known as theKinsey scale. He also included a category he called “X” for individuals with “no socio-sexual contacts or reactions”;[26][27] in modern times, this is categorized as representing asexuality.[28] Kinsey labeled 1.5% of the adult male population as X.[26][27] In his second book, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, he reported this breakdown of individuals who are X: unmarried females = 14–19%, married females = 1–3%, previously married females = 5–8%, unmarried males = 3–4%, married males = 0%, and previously married males = 1–2%.[27]

Further empirical data about an asexual demographic appeared in 1994, when a research team in the United Kingdom carried out a comprehensive survey of 18,876 British residents, spurred by the need for sexual information in the wake of the AIDS pandemic. The survey included a question on sexual attraction, to which 1.05% of the respondents replied that they had “never felt sexually attracted to anyone at all”.[29] The study of this phenomenon was continued by the Canadian sexuality researcher Dr. Anthony Bogaert in 2004, who explored the asexual demographic in a series of studies. Bogaert believed that the 1% figure was not an accurate reflection of the likely much larger percentage of the population that could be identified as asexual, noting that 30% of people contacted for the initial survey chose not to participate in the survey. Since less sexually experienced people are more likely to refuse to participate in studies about sexuality, and asexuals tend to be less sexually experienced than sexuals, it is likely that asexuals were under-represented in the responding participants. The same study found the number of homosexuals and bisexuals combined to be about 1.1% of the population, which is much smaller than other studies indicate.[4][8] However, Bogaert’s sexuality research has been scrutinized in the past, since he was involved in studies that linked race to sexual behaviors as if they had an evolutionary basis;[30] this study was highly debated by the scientific community as potentially constituting a case of scientific racism.

[edit]Sexual activity and sexuality

While some asexuals masturbate as a solitary form of release or have sex for the benefit of a romantic partner (see above), others do not.[6] The Kinsey Institute sponsored another small survey on the topic in 2007, which found that self-identified asexuals “reported significantly less desire for sex with a partner, lower sexual arousability, and lower sexual excitation but did not differ consistently from non-asexuals in their sexual inhibition scores or their desire to masturbate”.[6]

A 1977 paper titled Asexual and Autoerotic Women: Two Invisible Groups, by Myra T. Johnson, may be the first paper explicitly devoted to asexuality in humans. Johnson defines asexuals as those men and women “who, regardless of physical or emotional condition, actual sexual history, and marital status or ideological orientation, seem to prefer not to engage in sexual activity.” She contrasts autoerotic women with asexual women: “The asexual woman […] has no sexual desires at all [but] the autoerotic woman […] recognizes such desires but prefers to satisfy them alone.” Johnson’s evidence is mostly letters to the editor found in women’s magazines written by asexual/autoerotic women. She portrays them as invisible, “oppressed by a consensus that they are nonexistent,” and left behind by both the sexual revolution and the feminist movement. Society either ignores or denies their existence or insists they must be ascetic for religious reasons, neurotic, or asexual for political reasons.[31]

In a study published in 1979 in Advances in the Study of Affect, vol. 5, and in another article using the same data and published in 1980 in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Michael D. Storms of the University of Kansas outlined his own reimagining of the Kinsey scale. Whereas Kinsey measured sexual orientation based on a combination of actual sexual behavior and fantasizing and eroticism, Storms only used fantasizing and eroticism. Storms, however, placed hetero-eroticism and homo-eroticism on separate axes rather than at two ends of a single scale; this allows for a distinction between bisexuality (exhibiting both hetero- and homo-eroticism in degrees comparable to hetero- or homosexuals, respectively) and asexuality (exhibiting a level of homo-eroticism comparable to a heterosexual and a level of hetero-eroticism comparable to a homosexual, namely, little to none). Storms conjectured that many researchers following Kinsey’s model could be mis-categorizing asexual subjects as bisexual, because both were simply defined by a lack of preference for gender in sexual partners.[32][33]

The first study that gave empirical data about asexuals was published in 1983 by Paula Nurius, concerning the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health. Unlike previous studies on the subject, she used the above-mentioned two-dimensional model for sexual orientation. Six hundred eighty-nine subjects—most of whom were students at various universities in the United States taking psychology or sociology classes—were given several surveys, including four clinical well-being scales and a survey asking how frequently they engaged in various sexual activities and how often they would like to engage in those activities. Based on the results, respondents were given a score ranging from 0 to 100 for hetero-eroticism and from 0 to 100 for homo-eroticism. Respondents who scored lower than 10 on both were labeled “asexual.” This consisted of 5% of the males and 10% of the females. Results showed that asexuals were more likely to have low self-esteem and more likely to be depressed than members of other sexual orientations; 25.88% of heterosexuals, 26.54% bisexuals (called “ambisexuals”), 29.88% of homosexuals, and 33.57% of asexuals were reported to have problems with self-esteem. A similar trend existed for depression. Nurius did not believe that firm conclusions can be drawn from this for a variety of reasons. Asexuals also reported much lower frequency and desired frequency of a variety of sexual activities including having multiple partners, anal sexual activities, having sexual encounters in a variety of locations, and autoerotic activities.[34]

Though comparisons with non-human sexuality are problematic, a series of studies done on ram mating preferences at the United States Sheep Experiment Station in Dubois, Idaho, starting in 2001 found that about 2–3% of the animals being studied had no apparent interest in mating with either sex; the researchers classified these animals as asexual, but found them to be otherwise healthy with no recorded differences in hormone levels.[35][36]

A more recent paper written by Karli June Cerankowski and Megan Milks, titled New Orientations: Asexuality and Its Implications for Theory and Practice, suggests that asexuality may be somewhat of a question in itself for these studies of gender and sexuality.[37] Cerankowski and Milks have found that asexuality, by means of feminist and queer studies, raises many more questions than it resolves, such as how a person could abstain from having sex which is generally accepted by society to be the most basic of instincts. The article also states that society has either deemed “[LGBT and] female sexuality as empowered or repressed. The asexual movement challenges that assumption by challenging many of the basic tenets of pro-sex feminism already defined as repressive or anti-sex sexualities.” Asexual Visibility and Education Network (AVEN) has formulated asexuality as a biologically determined orientation. This formula, if dissected scientifically and proven, would support researcher Simon LaVey’s conclusive blind study of the hypothalamus in gay men, women, and straight men, which found that there is a biological difference between straight men and gay men.[38]

[edit]Community

LGBT symbols
Rainbow flag · Bisexual flag
Pink triangle · Black triangle
Labrys · Lambda
Bear flag · Leather flag
Transgender flag · Intersex flag
Asexual flag
Straight ally · Safe-space

The Asexual Pride Flag

A community of self-identified asexuals coalesced in the early 21st century, aided by the popularity of online communities.[5] Dr. Elizabeth Abbot, author of A History of Celibacy, acknowledges a difference between asexuality and celibacy and posits that there has always been an asexual element in the population but that asexual people kept a low profile. While failure to consummate marriage was seen as “an insult to the sacrament of marriage” in medieval Europe, asexuality, unlike homosexuality, has never been illegal, and asexual people have been able to “fly under the radar”. However, in the 21st century, the anonymity of online communication and general popularity of social networking online has facilitated the formation of a community built around a common asexual identity.[39]

The AVEN triangle representing asexuality. The top line of the triangle represents theKinsey Scale with the third point representing the other dimension of sexual attraction; the grey area depicting the gradient between sexual and asexual.[40]

The Asexual Visibility and Education Network (AVEN) is an organization founded by American asexualityactivist David Jay in 2001 that focuses on asexuality issues.[41] Its stated goals are “creating public acceptance and discussion of asexuality and facilitating the growth of an asexual community”.[41] Communities such as AVEN can be beneficial to those in search of answers to solve a crisis of identity with regard to their possible asexuality. Individuals go through a series of emotional processes that end with their identifying with the asexual community. They first realize that their sexual attractions differ from those of most of society. This difference leads to questioning whether the way they feel is acceptable, and possible reasons why they feel this way. Pathological beliefs tend to follow where, in some cases, they may seek medical help because they feel they have a disease. Self-understanding is usually reached when they find a definition that matches their feelings. Asexuality communities provide support and information that allows newly identified asexuals to move from self-clarification to identifying on a communal level, which can be empowering, because they now have something to associate with, which gives normality to this overall socially-isolating situation.[42]

At this time, asexual organizations and other internet resources play a key role in informing people about asexuality. The lack of research makes it difficult for doctors to understand the causation. Most people who say they are asexual are self-identified. This can be a problem when asexuality is mistaken for an intimacy or relationship problem or for other symptoms that do not define asexuality. There is also a significant population that either does not understand or does not believe in asexuality, which adds to the importance of these organizations to inform the general population; however, due to the lack of scientific fact on the subject, what these groups promote as information is often questioned.[43]

After a period of debate over having an asexual flag and how to set up a system to create one, and contacting as many asexual communities as possible, in August 2010 a flag was announced as the asexual pride flag by one of the team involved. The final flag had been a popular candidate and so had previously seen use in online forums outside of AVEN. The final vote was held on a survey system outside of AVEN where the main flag creation efforts were organized. The flag colors have been used in artwork and referenced in articles about the sexuality.[44]

[edit]Legal protections

Currently, the U.S. states of Vermont[45] and New York[46] have labeled asexuals as a protected class. Asexuality does not typically attract attention of the public or major scrutiny. Thus it has not been subject of legislation as other sexual orientations have.[8]

[edit]Notable asexuals

See also category: Asexual people
  • David Jay, activist and founder of AVEN.
  • Stephen Patrick Morrissey, British singer, songwriter, and former lead-singer of The Smiths. In interviews, he has described his being asexual and a member of the “fourth” sexuality.
  • Edward Gorey, writer and illustrator. Gorey never married or had any known romantic relationships and responded to an interviewer’s questioning of his sexual orientation with, “I’m neither one thing nor the other particularly … I am apparently reasonably undersexed or something.” He agreed with the interviewer’s suggestion that the “sexlessness” of his books was “a product of his asexuality”.[47]
  • Keri Hulme, author of The Bone People, winner of the 1985 Booker Prize, discussed asexuality and her involvement with AVEN in a 2007 interview.[24]
  • Bradford Cox, an American musician, leader of the bands Deerhunter and Atlas Sound.[48]
  • Emilie Autumn, an American singer-songwriter, poet, and violinist who is best known for her wide range of musical styles and her usage of theatrics.[49]
  • Tim Gunn, an American fashion consultant and television personality. He considers himself asexual and has not had a boyfriend since 1982.[50]
  • Janeane Garofalo, an American stand-up comedian, actress, political activist and writer, has described herself as asexual. During her filmed stand-up show in Seattle, she brought up her ten-year, celibate relationship with her boyfriend.[51]
  • J. M. Barrie, author of Peter Pan.[52]
  • Kenji Miyazawa, Japanese poet and novelist.[53]
  • Paula Poundstone, stand-up comedian.[54][55]
  • Cecil Rhodes, namesake of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and founder of De Beers. Biographer Antony Thomas has suggested that Rhodes was asexual.[56]
  • Anne Widdecombe, British retired politician and novelist. She has never married, has no children, and refused to answer a journalist’s question about her sexuality on BBC Radio 4, stating it was “nobody else’s business”.[57] Writing for The Guardian, John O’Farrell suggested advertising agencies should use an image of Widdecombe to target asexuals.[58]
  • Kenneth Williams, comic actor and comedian, regularly wrote diaries, which were anthologised by Russell Davies. He lived alone for his entire adult life, and his diaries record very few sexual experiences in his lifetime, with none after his 40s.[59]
  • Richey Edwards, lyricist and guitarist in the Manic Street Preachers, said “”I’m not a very sexual person,” and “I don’t need the physical closeness of a relationship and I’m afraid of the pain that goes with it, to be honest. Sleeping with someone, for me, is a change from wanking.”
Fictional characters and persons

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ “Asexual”. thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  2. ^ “Nonsexual”. thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  3. ^ Harris, Lynn (26 May 2005). “Asexual and proud!”Salon.com. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  4. a b c d e Bogaert, Anthony F. (2006). “Toward a conceptual understanding of asexuality”Review of General Psychology 10 (3): 241–250. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  5. a b c Westphal, Sylvia Pagan (2004). “Feature: Glad to be asexual”New ScientistArchived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  6. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Prause, Nicole; Cynthia A. Graham (August 2004).“Asexuality: Classification and Characterization” (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior 36 (3): 341–356. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9142-3.PMID 17345167Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  7. ^ Dictionary.com, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.): asexual: “Lacking interest in or desire for sex.”
  8. a b c d Bogaert, Anthony F. (2004). “Asexuality: prevalence and associated factors in a national probability sample”Journal of Sex Research 41 (3): 281. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  9. ^ “Study: One in 100 adults asexual”. CNN. 15 October 2004. Archivedfrom the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  10. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3d ed. 1992), entries for celibacy and thence abstinence
  11. a b “What is sexual orientation?”APAHelpCenter.orgArchived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  12. a b c d e f Melby, Todd (November 2005). “Asexuality gets more attention, but is it a sexual orientation?”. Contemporary Sexuality 39 (11): 1, 4–5.
  13. a b c “Overview”. The Asexual Visibility and Education Network (AVEN). 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  14. ^ Relationship FAQ The Asexual Visibility and Education Network (AVEN), 2008). Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  15. ^ Asexuality (Wellington, N.Z.: Gay Line Wellington, 2000–2010). Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  16. a b c DePaulo, Bella (26 September 2011). “ASEXUALS: Who Are They and Why Are They Important?”Psychology Today. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  17. a b c d Carrigan, Mark (August 2011). “There’s More to Life Than Just Sex? Difference and Commonality Within the Asexual Community”.Sexualities 14 (4): 462–478. doi:10.1177/1363460711406462.
  18. ^ In Webster’s Third (Merriam-Webster), etiology is defined both with and without reference to disease. The word is defined as “a science or doctrine of causation or of the demonstration of causes” and as “a branch of science dealing with the causes of particular phenomena”, thus without implying disease or abnormality. However, it is also defined as “all the factors that contribute to the occurrence of a disease or abnormal condition”. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged([prob. Springfield, Mass.:] G. & C. Merriam (Merriam-Webster), 1966), entryetiology.
  19. ^ In the Shorter Oxford Eng. Dict. ([4th] ed.), etiology is defined both with and without reference to disease. The word is defined as “[t]he assignment of a cause”, as “the cause assigned”, and, as now rare or obsolete, as “[t]he philosophy of causation; the part of a science which treats of the causes of its phenomena”. However, it is also defined in medicine as “[t]he causation of disease (usu., of a specified disease), esp. as a subject for investigation”.The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary: On Historical Principles (Oxford: Clarendon Press, [4th] ed. 1993 (ISBN 0-19-861271-0)), entry aetiology, via entry etiology.
  20. ^ In the American Heritage Dict. (3d ed.), etiology is defined both with and without reference to disease. The word is defined as “[t]he study of causes or origins” and as “[a]ssignment of a cause, an origin, or a reason for something”. However, it is also defined as “[t]he branch of medicine that deals with the causes or origins of disease” and as “[t]he cause or origin of a disease or disorder as determined by medical diagnosis”. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 3d ed. 1992 (ISBN 0-395-44895-6)), entry etiology.
  21. ^ In a nursing dictionary, etiology is defined relative only to disease. The word is defined as “[t]he study of the causes of disease” and as “[t]he cause of a disease”, with no other definitions, in Thomas, Clayton L., ed., Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, ed. 16 8th printing 1989 (ISBN 0-8036-8310-3)), entry etiology. The dictionary is intended for “those in the field of nursing” and others. Id., p. viii (Introduction to Edition 16, by Clayton Lay Thomas).
  22. ^ E.g., one study on hormonal influences defines sexual orientation as “heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality” only. Cited in: Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia, & Swaab, Dick F. (2010). “Sexual Hormones and the Brain: An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation”.Endocrine Development17:24. PMID 19955753. (Article found in Sandro Loche, Marco Cappa, Lucia Ghizzoni, Mohamad Maghnie, & Martin O. Savage, eds. Vol.17 Pediatric Neuroendocrinology) (“sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality)”). ISSN 1421-7082.
  23. ^ Page 30 “Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365(…) – APA California Amicus Brief — As Filed” (PDF). Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  24. a b Bridgeman, Shelley (5 August 2007). “No sex please, we’re asexual”.The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  25. ^ Levinson, Nick, For Men Only: Asexuality, in So to Speak: a feminist journal of language and art, vol. 14, no. 2 (2005), pp. 51–54.
  26. a b Kinsey, Alfred C. (1948). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. W.B. Saunders. ISBN 0-253-33412-8.
  27. a b c Kinsey, Alfred C. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. W.B. Saunders. ISBN 0-253-33411-X.
  28. ^ Mary Zeiss Stange, Carol K. Oyster, Jane E. Sloan (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today’s World. Sage Pubns. p. 158. ISBN 1-4129-7685-5, 9781412976855. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  29. ^ Wellings, K. (1994). Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. Penguin Books.
  30. ^ Rushton, J. P.; Bogaert, A. F. (1989). “Population differences in susceptibility to AIDS: An evolutionary analysis”. Social science & medicine (1982) 28 (12): 1211–1220. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(89)90339-0.PMID 2660278edit (author(s) of psychology dep’t, Univ. of Western Ont., London, Canada)
  31. ^ “Asexual and Autoerotic Women: Two Invisible Groups” found in ed. Gochros, H.L.; J.S. Gochros (1977). The Sexually Oppressed. Associated Press. ISBN 978-0-8096-1915-3
  32. ^ Storms, Michael D. (1980). “Theories of Sexual Orientation”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38 (5): 783–792. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.38.5.783.
  33. ^ Storms, M. D. (1979). Sexual orientation and self-perception. ed. Pliner, Patricia et al. Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect. Volume 5: Perception of Emotion in Self and Others Plenum Press
  34. ^ Nurius, Paula (1983). “Mental Health Implications of Sexual Orientation”.The Journal of Sex Research 19 (2): 119–136.doi:10.1080/00224498309551174.
  35. ^ Roselli, Charles A.; Stormshak, F; Stellflug, JN; Resko, JA (2002).“Relationship of serum testosterone concentrations to mate preferences in rams”Biology of Reproduction 67 (1): 263–268.doi:10.1095/biolreprod67.1.263PMID 12080026. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  36. ^ Stellflug, J.N. (1 June 2006). “Comparison of cortisol, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone responses to a defined stressor in sexually inactive rams and sexually active female-oriented and male-oriented rams”Journal of Animal Science 84 (6): 1520–1525. PMID 16699109. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  37. ^ Cerankowski, Karli June; Megan Milks (2010). “New Orientations: Asexuality and Its Implications for Theory and Practice”. Feminist Studies 36(3): 650–654.
  38. ^ Myers, David G. (2010). Psychology (9th ed. ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. p. 474. ISBN 978-1-4292-1597-8.
  39. ^ Duenwald, Mary (9 July 2005). “For Them, Just Saying No Is Easy”The New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
  40. ^ Jay, David. (8 March 2009) Asex 101, pt. 1 of 3, 8 March 2009 (DailyMotion) Accessed 12 December 2011.
  41. a b “About AVEN”AVEN. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  42. ^ Carrigan, Mark (2011). “There’s more to life than sex? Differences and commonality within the asexual community”. Sexualities 14 (4): 462–478.doi:10.1177/1363460711406462.
  43. ^ Engelman, Jessica. (16 January 2008). “Asexuality as a Human Sexual Orientation.” Serendip. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  44. ^ Money & Politics (9 January 2012). “Asexuality – Redefining Love and Sexuality”. recultured. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  45. ^ Gender Sex Sexual Orientation Definitions (Vermont Human Rights Commission, last updated Sep., 15, 2010) (unclear if Tracey Tsugawa is author or nonauthorial contact person for official purposes) (PDF)
  46. ^ The Sexual Orientation Non-Discrimination Act (“SONDA”) (State of N.Y., Office of the Attorney General, Civil Rights Bureau, 2008) (possibly written after stated copyright date, Attorney General being stated as Eric T. Schneiderman)
  47. ^ Gorey, Edward (2002). Ascending Peculiarity: Edward Gorey on Edward Gorey. Harvest Books. ISBN 978-0-15-601291-1.
  48. ^ Colly, Joe. (16 November 2009) “Interviews: Atlas Sounds“. Pitchfork. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  49. ^ Steinfeld, Dave (June 2010). “Interview with Emilie Autumn”. Curve Magazine. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
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[edit]External links

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